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Programme in Advanced Materials: Innovative Recycling

The AMIR programme has been developed to help students understand the full spectrum of all the core topics within the field of raw materials recycling. Drawing on the expertise of 6 European universities, AMIR brings together the collaboration of academia, industry and research partners to develop one of the world’s leading programmes within the field. Students have the opportunity to study across multiple European universities that specialise in the specific aspects of Advanced Materials: Innovative recycling.

Degrees Awarded

The AMIR Master programme offers students the possibility of obtaining a double diploma; a nationally accredited diploma from each of the two partner universities where they study. Currently the following combinations of partners lead to a double diploma:

  • First year at the University of Bordeaux and Second year at either the Technical University of Madrid or TU Darmstadt
  • First year at NOVA University Lisbon and Second year at either, Technical University of Madrid, TU Darmstadt or University of Liège*

*Subject to the completion of certain modules during the First year in Lisbon.

All other First/Second year combinations are technically possible, and lead to the award of a single diploma from the First year University attended. All graduating students are given a diploma supplement/certificate from the AMIR programme. This document will specify that they successfully completed the programme obtaining (at least) 120 ECTS, and at which of the partner Universities they studied.

First Year

In year 1 students will acquire an understanding of the full raw materials value chain and will develop a mindset for innovation and entrepreneurship.

The first year of the AMIR Master programme takes place at the University of Bordeaux or NOVA in partnership with the research and technology organisation, Tecnalia. Students will learn about the general and technical aspects of the raw material value chain, including – general chemistry, material science, lifecycle of materials, as well as the learning outcomes of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT): sustainability, intellectual transformation, value judgments (ethical, scientific and sustainability challenges), creativity, innovation, leadership and entrepreneurship.

1st semester – Autumn Semester
Elaboration of Inorganic Materials

This course is devoted to the development of inorganic materials. The first part deals with the extraction of minerals and large metallurgical processes. The second part develops the different methods for the synthesis of inorganic materials in powder form. An introduction to sintering is also presented. The third part focuses on the innovative methods of sol-gel type chemistry. In the last part thin-film processes are also explored. – Download a detailed course description.

Bonds in Chemistry

The objective of this course is to study chemical bonding in order to reveal the link between structure and composition, as well as between reactivity and properties of compounds, whether in organic molecules, transition metal complexes or solids. Particular emphasis will be placed on reactivity problems in organic chemistry as well as on properties of transition metal complexes.

Chemical/Structural Analyses of Solids

The main classes focus on the description of light-matter interactions, including techniques of spectroscopy (photoelectrons, auger, X-ray fluorescence) or electron microscopy (transmission and scanning). For the structural analysis of crystallised solids the student should be able to initially describe their periodic structure using groups of space and the international tables of crystallography. The study of powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction will allow students to determine the group that describes the symmetry of the studied object and connect the intensities measured to the positions of the atoms in the unit cell.

Sustainability and Life Cycle Assessment of Materials

The goal of this course is to provide students with knowledge on current sustainability challenges and the related triple bottom line of sustainable development. The students have to (i) understand different criticality assessment methods, (ii) get a basic understanding of the value chain of raw materials recycling, (iii) learn the methods, software and databases to measure environmental impacts and the resource flows of raw materials and products by life cycle assessment and material flow analysis. Students will also learn the value of the economic aspects of criticality and life cycle analysis studies for materials and processes.

Materials Dismantling and Recycling

This lecture aims to present the major classes of materials (with a focus on metallic, ceramic and hard composite classes) their properties and the associated characterisations, with a clear emphasis on various skills required besides dismantling and recycling of various material classes. For illustration, the programme combines theoretical and practical approaches: (i) elemental separation (selective dissolution, precipitation in aqueous/organic solvents) based on Potential vs pH or Ellingham diagrams, (ii) practical work on device dismantling, recycling and reuse from case studies (electronic cards in personal computers, separation and reuse of the constituents of aeronautic composites: carbon fibres –within polymeric matrix, etc.), (iii) a presentation of some innovative processes (hydrothermal, supercritical fluid processes) as an alternative to incineration for ceramics or composite materials.

2nd semester – Spring Semester
Creativity, Innovation, Leadership and Entrepreneurship

The Entrepreneurship Module delivered by Tecnalia is based on team-entrepreneurship, building interdisciplinary teams that aim to solve and work in real projects for customers or end-users on a learning-by-doing basis. Additionally, communities of young entrepreneurs/managers are created as a space to share their current business ideas, challenges and problems in order to become more competitive and learn from each other. In both cases, the support and facilitation of a team coach are necessary to lead the process and facilitate the training sessions and all learning activities. This module allows participants to enhance their talent and develop the skills needed for creating innovative projects. Participants are trained for the development and implementation of new projects, products or services that generate value in society, as well as leading the creation of new businesses and/or leading new innovative projects within existing companies.

Solid State Physics

This lecture provides an introduction to the physics of the solid state. The objectives are: (i) the description of lattice vibrations (phonons) as well as (ii) the electronic structure of different types of solids: metals, semimetals, semiconductors and insulators. Different levels of description and basic concepts are discussed, including free electron gas model, concept of reciprocal lattice, Bloch theorem, quasi-free electron model, tight-binding model, electronic bands theory and thermal and conduction properties.

Master 1 Internship

Within the 1st year of the Master programme, every student has to be engaged in an internship research project in a Chemistry Research Unit of the university (for further information please refer below to the websites of the 5 laboratories that participate with AMIR students for Master 1 internships)

The aim of this internship is for students to experience a research environment in one of our world renowned laboratories. The evaluation will be carried out by a committee composed of professors participating in the AMIR programme and the researcher responsible for the student during the internship. The internship is credited with 3 ECTS.

French Grammar/Culture (or English for French students)

For non-French-speaking students: Practice of spoken and written French – Discovery of France’s cultural aspects and everyday life communication. This teaching unit allows the full integration of students coming from various horizons. For French-speaking students: Practice of spoken and written English to reach level B1 minimum (TOEIC 550 pts) – Learning scientific/professional communication.

From Devices to Fundamental Aspects

This study focuses on the environment and standards. The example of lead based ferroelectric materials with applications in domains such as electronics and radars etc., will be used to illustrate these critical challenges in the development of new materials that are safer for the environment, whilst performing as well as the lead based ones.

Industrial Seminars

Industrial seminars will be programmed based on the fields of expertise of the most engaged industrial partners. At Bordeaux the industrial seminars will be delivered by:
(i) The CEA (Commissariat à l’Energie atomique) on new energy sources and nuclear waste recycling
(ii) Veolia, illustrating the issue of e-wastes: “a significant source of valuable raw materials”
(iii) ArcelorMittal, as the world’s largest steel producer and one of the main actors within metal recycling
(iv) Local industrial players (Lelectrolyse, Pena, Bee&co)

1st semester – Autumn Semester
Materials Selection and Sustainability (Mandatory)

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students: It is intended that students acquire the ability to choose what is the best material for a given application. Considering the wide variety of existing materials, this process is only possible when using a selection methodology that systematically classifies materials by figures of merit (material indexes). The selection methods for material processing, shaping and joining also have a similar approach. This methodology is supported by a specific software that works with a database of material properties.

Syllabus: Material and process selection focusing on design, performance, cost and environmental constraints. Databases for materials selection. Graphic representation of properties as a basis for a selection strategy: Ashby’s selection system. Selection methodology and application to real-life situations. Selection methodology as a tool for the development of new materials, processes and applications.

Substitution by Clean Technologies and Green Chemistry (Mandatory)

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students): To acquire basic knowledge, skills and competences related to the application of sustainability within the products and processes of the Chemical Industry.

Syllabus: Chemical Industry, Chemicals and their impact on modern lifestyles. The Principles of Green Chemistry and Sustainable Engineering. Toxicology. The European legislation on chemicals (REACH). Sustainable Chemistry metrics. Life Cycle Analysis. The tools of Green Chemistry. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis. Waste reduction. Intensification of processes. Alternative solvents. Biotechnology and Biorefineries. Carbon capture and sequestration.

Characterisation, Monitoring and Rehabilitation Techniques

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students): This subject provides training on the functionality and application of characterisation techniques: electron microscopy (SEM-FIB), AFM, spectroscopy in visible, UV and Infrared Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, XRD, XRF, NMR. It describes advanced monitoring tools (in-line and on-line Raman, NIR, UV, and NMR) for tracking critical process parameters and critical quality attributes to enable Quality by Design (QbD). Multivariate data acquisition and data analysis tools, design of experiments, design, analysis, and control of manufacturing processes are also explored. It provides expertise in designing solutions for contaminated sites using methodologies of evaluation.

Syllabus: Electron microscopes: transmission (TEM), scanning (SEM) and scanning transmission (STEM). Electron detectors and X ray spectrometry (EDS and WDS). Elemental analysis in SEM-EDS/WDS. Optical Spectroscopy: Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Visible-Near Infrared, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. XRD-XRF. NMR. Introduction to Process Analytical Technology (PAT). Biosensors. Multivariate data analysis- design of experiments. Definition and identification of CPP’s and CQA’s. Automatic Process control. Integrated methodology of evaluation of contaminated sites. Remediation techniques. In-situ and ex-situ (on-site and off-site) processes. Developing stages, use, applicability, confidence and duration. Case studies and available software use.

Finance for Entrepreneurs

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students): 

  • LO1- Gives students a conceptual framework on dealing with a global competitive environment.
  • LO2- Provides the main tools to the business environment, highlighting the role of financial management as an instrument of strategy.
  • LO3- Evaluates and selects different financing instruments exploring risk, profitability and solvency.
  • LO4- Interprets a company’s economic and financial situation using the most common financial management techniques (Balance Sheet, P/L account and ratios methods).
  • LO5- Provides the concepts and tools to develop risk management in international markets, including those arising from interest rates and exchange rate mismatching.

Syllabus:

  1. To be an entrepreneur in a global market: Context and challenges
  2. Financial management as a strategic tool
  3. Business plan: Methods of financial forecasting
  4. Risk, profitability and leveraging
  5. Financing business opportunities
  6. Economic and financial analysis
  7. Using hedging instruments to cover risks in international markets
Mineral Resources in the Circular Economy (Optional)

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students): This course intends to give students an understanding of the importance of mineral

resources in society and in the circular economy. Students will be able to understand global geopolitics and its impacts in society and the existence of policies in the supply and demand of critical and non-critical raw materials within the advent of the 4th Industrial Revolution. Students will also  be able to understand the life cycle of a mine and understand ores as a multiple source of critical raw materials, including the potentialities of recovery from waste in a philosophy of fundamental and environmentally sustainable economic activity. They will be able to understand geological processes and mineral deposits mechanisms and identify potential resources to be exploited in a given region.

Syllabus: Non-renewable resources. Mineral resources (MR) and metals. Privileged regions and global geopolitics. Provision policies. Commodities and super-cycles. 4th Industrial Revolution and MR. CRM’s. Circular economy and its direct dependence on sustainable MR exploitation. Mine life cycle and its relations with raw material production. Ore and minerals as a multiple source of CRM’s. Metal recovery from mine waste. Conciliation of PRM (primary raw materials) and SRM (secondary raw materials). Mineralising fluids and genetic processes. Alteration-mineralisation. Supergenic alteration. Metallogenetic models and zoning. Lithogeochemistry, metal deposits and its relationship with Plate Tectonics. Classes of mineral deposits. Types of ore, mineral chemistry, mineral texture and paragenesis. Fluid inclusion and isotopes. Mineral and textural identification. Geochemical characterisation. Pre-feasibility studies and international systems of reporting resources and reserves. Metallogenetic belts. Case-studies.

Chemical Reactors I (Optional)

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students): The main goal of this course is to provide students with the basic concepts of Chemical Reaction Engineering, in such a way that at the end of the course the students will be able to: determine a kinetic law corresponding to a given chemical reaction by calculating the kinetic parameters. To derive a kinetic law from a mechanistic proposal. To design ideal chemical reactors working under isothermal or non-isothermal conditions.

Syllabus:

  1. Ideal chemical reactors: batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor, plug flow reactor.
  2. Reaction rate and conversion. The general mole balance equation.
  3. Graphical methods.
  4. Stoichiometry and rate law.
  5. Batch reactors: optimising the operation time and conversion.
  6. Association of CSTRs. Pressure drop in the PFR. Reversible reactions.
  7. Unsteady state operation.
  8. Determination of kinetic parameters.
  9. Homogeneous non-elementary reactions.
  10. Non-isothermal reactors: the energy balance equation; continuous-flow reactors at steady state.
  11. Non-isothermal batch reactor.
  12. Multiple steady states in a CSTR: a brief looking on the steady state stability.
  13. Multiple reactions: selectivity and yield.
  14. Non Ideal reactors. Characterisation of flow by use of tracers. Modelling real reactors by association of ideal reactors
Nanomaterials and Energy (Optional)

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students): The aim of this course is to acquaint students with the technology of coatings and thin films commonly used in coating processes from the functional and structural point of view.

Syllabus: Introduction to current energy problems:

  1. Materials and systems used in solar energy into electricity conversion, operation of solar cell manufacturing processes.
  2. Materials and Systems used in converting solar energy into thermal energy – importance of coatings/materials absorbers of radiation and other materials.
  3. Materials and systems for converting heat energy into electrical energy through the thermoelectric effect – the mode of operation, materials, manufacturing processes.
  4. Materials used in energy savings – chromogenic materials – principle of operation, type of materials used in manufacturing processes.
  5. Materials used in energy storage – the operation of batteries, materials and their respective advantages and disadvantages and ecological problems; fuel cells – operating principle, materials used, degree of development and implementation.
  6. Biomimetics, bio and electronic systems for the conversion/conservation of energy.
Transport Phenomena (Optional)

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students): At the end of this course, students will have acquired knowledge and skills that allow them to:

  • Develop a detailed understanding of the physical principles behind momentum transport by molecular and turbulent (natural and forced convection) mechanisms in flowing fluids and its mathematical expression.
  • Write the Energy Balance and the Species Continuity Equations for specific transport problems.
  • Determine changes in potential and kinetic energy, pressure and friction pressure losses in fluids circulating in pipes. Choose the most suitable pump type for a particular fluid transport and determine the required pump power.
  • Understand the fundamental concepts of heat transport. Calculate dimensionless numbers associated with heat transport and determine coefficients of heat transport through empirical equations.
  • Select and design the most appropriate heat transfer equipment to be used in chemical and biochemical industries.

Syllabus:

  1. Transport Basic Concepts: Equilibrium and driving forces; Operations in equilibrium stages and rate of transfer.
  2. Mass, Heat, and Momentum Transport by Molecular Mechanism: The general molecular transport equation and diffusivities; Newtonian fluids, non-Newtonian fluids, with time dependent and time independent viscosities.
  3. Turbulent Transport: The Reynolds Experiment; The general transport equation and eddy diffusivity; Mechanism ratio analysis; Dimensionless groups; Boundary layers: laminar and turbulent; Friction coefficient; Global transfer coefficients.
  4. Analogies among Mass, Heat, and Momentum Transfer: The Reynolds analogy, the Colburn analogy and the Martinelli analogy.
  5. Momentum Transport in Incompressible Fluids; The Bernoulli equation; Pressure drops; Fluid and pressure meters; Pumping liquids.
  6. Heat Transport: Conduction; Convection; Radiation; Heat exchangers; Use of insulating materials.
2nd Semester - Spring Semester
Advanced Topics in Materials Science and Engineering

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students): The course intends to introduce relevant and advanced topics within modern functional materials science and engineering, providing a broad and deep understanding of the processing, nature and properties of the most relevant classes of materials that are of interest to industry. The course also aims to equip students with critical thinking on how materials can be selected and designed towards final applications, taking into consideration major challenges and sustainability issues.

Syllabus: Different classes of engineering materials, key properties and application areas. Potentialities in nanomaterials. Processing-microstructure-property relationships. Overview on advanced manufacturing techniques. Structural materials. Polymers. Composites. Biomaterials and healthcare. Materials for electronics and optoelectronics. Energy materials. Nanoscale possibilities and challenges. Sustainability. Design and simulation supporting selection of materials. Extraction and Processing. Life cycle and end of life.

Waste treatment and Recycling Technologies

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students): The goal of this course is to give students a general overview on technical and scientific aspects on prevention, valorisation and recycling of wastes with a strong incidence in Materials Science and processing technologies. Aspects of the valorisation of wastes through waste treatment and recycling strategies that allow for a more efficient technical, ecological and economic action. Students will also approach prevention in the production of residues and wastes through modernisation of organisation and management strategies of the manufacturing sector, with a focus on the minimisation of industrial wastes.

Syllabus: Processing technologies of metallic, polymeric, electronic and ceramic materials; materials selection correlating properties, structure and processing; impact of materials in the environment; selection, separation and characterisation of solid residues; chemical processes on the treatment of materials for waste valorisation; application of bioprocessing of waste and its limitations; mechanical recycling of materials and wastes; ecologic materials and their properties.

Biocatalysis and Bioremediation

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students): This course aims to provide fundamental principles on the biodegradation/biotransformation of hazardous pollutants and waste, and present emerging technologies for their elimination/reduction, using isolated enzymes or microorganisms vs. ‘bioaugmentation’.

Syllabus:

  1. Examples of biotransformations carried out on an industrial scale. Advantages of using nonaqueous media (NAM). Enzymatic properties in NAM. ‘Greener’ NAM: supercritical fluids and ionic liquids. Immobilisation and characterisation of biocatalysts.
  2. Enzyme classes most used in bioremediation. Relevance of NAM. Discovery of new enzymes and modification of existing ones. Applications. Enzymatic conversion of waste biomass and of CO2.
  3. Environmental contamination by hazardous substances; magnitude of the contamination problem. Types of pollutants (organic, inorganic). Physical/chemical transformation of pollutants in soil.
  4. Principles of microbiological degradation of pollutants. Microbial ecology. Factors influencing biodegradation. Biodegradation mechanisms (metabolism and kinetics).
  5. In situ and ex situ bioremediation. Aerobic vs. anaerobic bioremediation. Biostimulation vs. bioaugmentation.
Project in Innovative Materials Recycling and Sustainability

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students): This course gives students research and development opportunities, promoting participation in research projects by the academic staff of the faculty. The scientific committee of the programme has a list of opportunities for students to participate in research projects. The student carries out the work plan during the course of the semester, with a core focus in the period between the end of exams and the beginning of the next semester, comprising a 5 week period at the lab. The student will have contact with scientific research environments and will gain knowledge on how research projects work in the area of innovative materials recycling and sustainability. The student will develop skills in presenting and explaining research results, along with other skills such as team working, oral and written communication and independent learning. Depending on the project chosen, the student will acquire specific knowledge on the subject area and also some specific technical skills in the project area.

Syllabus: Inclusion on the research team of choice (decided by the student) from a given set of projects available. Participation on the research work of the chosen project and preparation of a report.

Entrepreneurship

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students): This course is intended to motivate students in entrepreneurship and the need for technological innovation. It covers a list of topics and tools that are important for new venture creation, as well as the development of creative initiatives within existing enterprises. Students are expected to develop an entrepreneurial culture, including the following skills:

  1. To identify ideas and opportunities to launch new projects.
  2. To get knowledge on how to deal with technical and organisational issues required to launch entrepreneurial projects.
  3. To understand the project implementation challenges, namely venture capital and teamwork management and find the right tools to implement them.
  4. To show and explain ideas and how to convince stakeholders.

Syllabus: Strategy for entrepreneurship. Ideation and processes for the creation of new ideas. Industrial property rights and protection: patents and technical formalities. Managing an entrepreneurial project: planning; communication and motivation; leadership and teamwork. Marketing and innovation for the development of new products and businesses. Business plan and entrepreneurial finance. System of Incentives for young entrepreneurs. Managing growth and intrapreneurship.

Industrial and Entrepreneurial Seminars

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students): Industrial and entrepreneurial seminars will be devised to take advantage of the expertise of local industrial and economic partners that are called on to give an overview of the technological developments in their field of operations. Students will be able to have close contact with entrepreneurs and companies in the field of advanced materials and innovative recycling.

Syllabus: A specific syllabus is not applicable in this type of course. The seminars will address fundamental concepts and tools necessary for the evaluation of the sustainability of products and production processes. The discipline will embrace learning at the level of advanced materials, to develop intelligent production of goods and equipment, with the understanding of the macro scale of complex systems in engineering, which encompasses the evaluation of environmental, economic and social impacts due to decision-making.

Separation Processes I (Optional)

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students): The main purpose of Separation Processes I is to provide students with the ability to:

  • Understand the fundamental concepts of equilibrium-controlled separation processes used in the chemical industry: gas/liquid absorption, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, humidification, and drying.
  • To design the equipment required for each of the studied processes.

Syllabus: Gas Absorption. Countercurrent vs concurrent multistage operation; Equilibrium stage; HOG and NOG; Criteria for design and operation of equipment. Distillation. Vapour- liquid equilibria; Multistage tray towers; McCabe and Thiele method; Packed towers; Batch distillation. Liquid Extraction; Liquid – liquid equilibria; Criteria for solvent selection; Stage wise contact; Continuous contact equipment. Humidification; Definitions. Wet-bulb and adiabatic-saturation temperature; Gas-liquid adiabatic operations; Equipment. Water-cooling towers. Drying; Equilibrium and definitions; Batch drying. Rate and time of drying; Continuous drying. Equipment and applications Introduction to Aspen. Resolution of exercises with multicomponent distillation column and solvent extraction column by Aspen.

Mineral Processing and Sustainable Exploration and Mining (Optional)

Intended learning outcomes, knowledge, skills and competences to be developed by the students): The course aims to provide students with the technical and practical concepts of mining and processing of ores, with emphasis on metallic ores and special sands. Namely, choosing the most appropriate techniques, equipment and procedures and environmental impacts. Students will be able to integrate team-works concerning the execution of technical mining projects, as well as to integrate the teams of monitoring and optimisation of processes and preparation of environmental impact studies. Learn mining exploration techniques and methodologies. Learn the steps and activities in an exploration and mining project. Mining project development, environmental impact assessment and licensing of exploration and mining projects.

Syllabus: Mining and mineral processing objectives. Mineralogical images and image processing. Liberation size. Physical and geomechanical properties of rocks for mineral processing and separation/concentration. Unit operations of liberation and separation. Comminution. Mechanical screening. Technologies and equipment for screening. Technologies and equipment for separation. Circuits of comminution-screening. Circuits of separation. Transport of solids and sludge. Decantation. Flocculation. Mass balance. Recovery indexes. Consumption of energy and water. Tailings dams. Environmental impacts. Techniques and stages of mining. Samples, pathfinders and equipment. Project and well logging techniques in exploration. Environmental impact in concessions. Life cycle of a mine and mining infrastructure. Methods of excavation and mineral extraction. Excavation and blasting. Mine closure.

Second year

In year 2 students will specialise in a study field of choice with one of AMIR’s four partner universities, followed by an internship with a research organisation, industrial partner or academic partner.

Students will have the choice to specialise with one of the partner universities of: Technical University of Darmstadt, University of Liège, Technical University of Madrid or University of Miskolc. This part of the programme offers students the opportunity to follow select advanced materials classes for various applications, including energy, e-mobility, magnets, transport and environments – catalysis.

The academic specialisations are:

  • Material design for recycling in Darmstadt
  • Metallurgy and metals recycling in Liège
  • Mineral recycling for construction and other sectors in Madrid
  • Recycling of polymers in Miskolc

Graduates of the AMIR programme will be awarded a single or double Master of Science degree, depending upon their chosen pathway. Graduates will also be awarded the EIT Label Certificate.

1st semester – Autumn Semester

In the second year of the AMIR Programme, study at Technische Universität Darmstadt (TUD) provides deep insights into selected advanced materials classes for energy applications as well as e-mobility (magnets), accompanied by insights into how to design such materials in consideration to their optimised recyclability. This is achieved by teaching basic knowledge on functional materials and on surfaces and interfaces. Additionally, students will get the chance to choose between three different subjects:

  • Material Science for Renewable Energy Systems
  • Electrochemistry in Energy Applications I: Converter Devices 
  • Magnetism and Magnetic Materials

Students will also develop practical insights within an advanced research lab, giving them the chance to participate in ‘real science’ at a research group of their choice at TUD. The second year at TUD is rounded off by a 6-month master’s thesis, which should be conducted at a research and technology organisation (RTO) or (preferably) at an industrial company (not necessarily a partner of AMIR), which is considered as the ‘training period’ within the AMIR programme. Ultimately, students who have chosen to further their AMIR Master at TUD will graduate with the Master of Science in Materials Science from TUD in addition to their degree received from the University of Bordeaux.

3rd semester – Autumn Semester
Advanced Research Lab with Seminar

Each of the working groups offers scientific tasks which are part of the students research programme. These tasks have no fixed solution, the solution has to be developed in an interplay between the students and those involved in the research group. The students have to hand out a written report of their lab work and present a talk summarising their findings. Each student is exposed to a controlled research activity within a real scientific working group. He/she will gain the ability to understand a scientific problem from its different aspects and how a limited research task is connected to a more general and broader research objective. The student will gain experience in judging which type of research matches his/her individual interests and capabilities. As a result, the student will gain the competence to choose a suitable topic for their master thesis.

Expected Learning: The students will become acquainted with the practice of presenting their results in front of scientists who are working within that field of research. Students will learn to present in a clear and ordered way and understand how to use modern means of presentations such as animated images etc. Student will also gain experience in defending his/her work against critical questions.

Surfaces and Interfaces

This part of the course will see students undertaking the following topics:

  • Surfaces of solids: thermodynamics of surface formation, structure of surfaces, electronic structure of surface and surface potentials.
  • Kinetics of surface reactions: physisorption and chemisorption, surface diffusion, surface reactions and catalysis.
  • Internal surfaces: structural models, thermodynamics of internal surfaces, epitaxy and growth modes.
  • Solid/electrolyte interfaces: thermodynamics and electrochemical double layers, thermodynamics of electrochemical reactions, kinetics of electrochemical reactions, corrosion and corrosion modes.

Expected Learning: The student will be able to understand and treat the specific effects of surfaces and interfaces in materials science, differentiate between thermodynamically and kinetically determined properties and know the important terms and definitions and related theoretical concepts used in surface/interface science and electrochemistry. They will also have achieved a conceptual understanding of how surfaces/interfaces affect the properties of presented devices and achieve a materials science related understanding of electrochemical processes, with the ability to transfer this knowledge to any future envisaged problems and materials. The student will have reached a level of competence to differentiate between bulk and surface effects in devices and correlate them with a materials properties to become qualified to evaluate experimental and theoretical methods in their potential future research involving surface/interface effects and electrolyte interfaces. They will also have the competence to follow advanced textbooks and scientific literature.

Functional Materials

This part of the course will see a study into conductivity in metals, semiconductors, thermoelectricity, organic semiconductors, ionic conductors, dielectric and ferroelectric materials, introduction to magnetism and magnetic materials, magnetic materials and their applications (permanent and soft magnets), magnetocaloric materials, metal hydrides, superconductors.
Expected Learning: Students will gain knowledge of the most important principles within the material classes mentioned above, focusing not only on the physical principles, but also the materials synthesis and application of the most important functional materials. Furthermore, applications of these material classes will be discussed. Students will also be able to develop and characterise simple devices constructed from the above mentioned materials.

Option I - Materials Science for Renewable Energy Systems (Energy Materials)

This part of the course will see students undertaking a study of bonding interactions, bonding properties in solids, electronic properties of solids, thermal properties of solids, thermodynamics and kinetics of defects, ion conduction materials, mechanical properties of solids, high temperature materials, surface and interfaces of solids, typical energy materials used in specific energy devices (solar cell, battery, fuel cell, turbine, blades, etc.).

Expected Learning: Students will learn the basic concepts of materials science and will be introduced to the main focus of physical properties as a dependent on material composition and microstructure on the influence of non-idealities and on the combinations of materials. Selection criteria for the application of materials will be introduced as used for typical energy applications. Students will develop the competence to correlate basic materials properties and engineering strategies with the needed applicability for devices. They should also be able to judge results from the literature and understand the limitations and perspectives of given research approaches.

Option II - Choice of any course offered by the Materials Science Department (minimum of 4 ECTS)
Option III - Magnetic Materials

This part of the course will study basic notions of magnetism, magnetism in atoms and ions, magnetism in metallic materials, crystal field symmetry and exchange interaction, magnetically ordered structures, magnetic order, symmetry and phase transitions, micromagnetism and domain behaviour, experimental methods in magnetism, selected (hot) topics from current research.

Expected Learning: Students will be able to remember the basic notions of magnetism for a broad range of situations and materials. Students will develop the competence to differentiate between different types of magnetism and their origin and to correlate them with materials properties. They will also become qualified to evaluate experimental and theoretical methods for goal-oriented research in the area of magnetism and magnetic materials and will develop knowledge of modern magnetic materials and their use in current applications. Finally, students will gain insight into modern research in magnetism and magnetic materials and a beginner’s level competence to follow advanced textbooks and scientific literature.

4th semester – Spring Semester
Internship in industry or RTO (Research and Technology Organisation)

Students will undertake a 6-month internship, typically in one of the Research and Technology Organisations laboratories or industries, as well as any industrial partner or start-up with the desire to join the consortium that are able to bring added-value to the programme. Students will be able to choose the best internship for their future career or even create their own start up during this period!

Masters Thesis

During their thesis period students will first become familiarised with their subject of choice and set-up a work schedule. Students will also undertake experimental and/or theoretical work on a scientific subject, documentation of the results by authoring the Master Thesis, presentation of the results in a talk with subsequent scientific discussion, public presentation of the results of the Master Thesis with subsequent scientific discussion.

Expected Learning: Students will know the foundational discussions around a current topic, usually a research related question in materials science. They will know the structure and composition of scientific publications and will be able to apply acquired knowledge and qualifications to specific scientific topics with newly acquired methods and means, in order to independently work on scientific problems in sufficient depth and breadth. They will also be able to autonomously create documentation and presentations about their research work and results. Finally, students will be able to adequately present their results and discuss and defend them in a public scientific environment.

3rd semester – Autumn Semester
Raw Materials in the Circular Economy

This part of the course introduces students to the geopolitical, geological and technological issues in raw materials. Critical raw materials – challenges and trends; Resource efficiency. From studying the course students will be able to:

  • Understand the complexity in the supply/demand chain of raw materials in the context of a globalised and connected world.
  • Understand the dynamics of resources and reserves as well as the economics of primary and secondary raw materials.
  • Be aware of economic influencing factors and the importance of securing the supply chain for metals (base, precious, critical) and major mineral ores.
  • Identify the right sources for a given need or to find alternative resources that meet the sustainable development criteria.
  • Implement lifecycle analysis studies and understand their opportunities and limits.
Extractive Metallurgy

This area of the course deepens the student’s knowledge of metallurgical processes used for production of the main non-ferrous, precious and platinum metals. Theoretical and practical aspects of extractive metallurgical industries are discussed together with the basics of modern hydrometallurgy. The latter is supported by case studies exemplifying operational flowsheets for leaching mineral ores and concentrates. From studying the course students will be able to:

  • Understand the basic notions in mineral thermodynamics and solid-liquid phase stabilities.
  • Implement operations aimed at selective dissolving, separating and concentrating metals (hydrometallurgy, hydrolysis, electrorefining, reactive extraction).
  • Understand the origin of metal value and design an optimal processing route in terms of economics and environmental impact.
  • Be well aware of major industrial operations and capable of identifying new advanced routes for materials recovery from end of-life products by extractive metallurgy.
Solid Waste and by-product Processing

This area of the course is centred around the questions of how recycling could contribute to overcoming the materials shortage and what the economic importance of technological challenges are within the reuse and recycling of “secondary” resources. From studying the course students will be able to:

  • Properly implement the different unit operations for processing waste materials (shredders, sorters, eddy-current and ballistic separators).
  • Select the best available technologies and develop an optimised flow sheet for processing a given waste stream.
  • Become aware of valuable by-products and opportunities for residual wastes (industrial ecology).
  • Become familiarised with existing industrial activities in waste processing and capable of identifying new opportunities in this field of activity.
Economic and Societal Issues in Mining and Recycling

This part of the course focuses on the economic issues in mining and recycling industries. Legislation. Environmental aspects. Social Corporate responsibility. From studying the course students will be able to:

  • Become familiar with industrial players and other stakeholders in the EU mining and recycling sector.
  • Get to know how innovative SMEs in the recycling sector are created and operate.
  • Understand their business models, opportunities and threats for their activities.
  • Be aware of the importance of non-technical factors on the recycling of metals (taw regimes, waste disposal fees, collection of end-of-life products, health and safety, logistics).
  • Become creative and open-minded with respect to business opportunities, including in the social economy.
Introduction to the Modelling of Chemical Processes

This part of the course will provide an introduction to the general principles of modelling. Application of these principles in the field of process engineering. Objectives, needs and limitations of modelling and simulation. General modelling procedure applied to solving process flowsheets. Process tearing to iterative flowsheet solving. Energy supply-demand analysis in chemical industries. From studying the course students will be able to:

  • Learn how to build a conceptual model for a single unit operation.
  • Identify specifications, characteristic variables and resulting degrees of freedom for a model.
  • Integrate bloc models inside a flow-sheet model and choose numerical methods to solve industrial process models.
  • Represent thermal energy requirements and identify potential of energy-saving technologies.
  • Learn how to use purposely built simulation tools.
High Temperature Processes in Recycling and Remanufacturing

This part of the course will introduce the topics of pyrometallurgy and thermodynamics. Iron and steel production and recycling. Production and recycling of Cu, Al, Pb, Zn, precious metals and REE and provide a holistic view on high temperature processes – resource & energy efficiency. Base metals pyrometallurgy in practice; Re-manufacturing; Technological challenges. From studying the course students will be able to:

  • Understand the basic notions in pyrometallurgy of ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
  • Identify secondary resources that can/have to be processed via pyro- instead of hydro- metallurgy.
  • Be aware about the BAT opportunities and reasons for recovery/loss of metals in pyrometallurgical processes.
  • Design an optimal pyrometallurgical processing route for selected metals and waste streams and assess energy requirements.
  • Become aware of existing major industrial operations and identify new viable routes in high temperature processing of complex wastes and end-of-life products.
  • Modify material selection and product design to positively impact on the viability of pyrometallurgical operations.
  • Analyse wear and/or corrosion mechanisms in extreme environments under various situations encountered in pyrometallurgical processing. Select an appropriate method(s) to improve/repair and test materials durability.
4th semester – Spring Semester
Internship in industry or RTO (Research and Technology Organisation)

Students will undertake a 6-month internship, typically in one of the Research and Technology Organisations laboratories or industries, as well as any industrial partner or start-up with the desire to join the consortium that are able to bring added-value to the programme. Students will be able to choose the best internship for their future career or even create their own start up during this period!

Master Thesis

During their thesis period students will first become familiarised with their subject of choice and set-up a work schedule. Students will also undertake experimental and/or theoretical work on a scientific subject, documentation of the results by authoring the Master Thesis, presentation of the results in a talk with subsequent scientific discussion, public presentation of the results of the Master Thesis with subsequent scientific discussion.

Expected Learning: Students will know the foundational discussions around a current topic, usually a research related question in materials science. They will know the structure and composition of scientific publications and will be able to apply acquired knowledge and qualifications to specific scientific topics with newly acquired methods and means, in order to independently work on scientific problems in sufficient depth and breadth. They will also be able to autonomously create documentation and presentations about their research work and results. Finally, students will be able to adequately present their results and discuss and defend them in a public scientific environment.

3rd semester – Autumn Semester
Fundamentals of Urban Mining

On this part of the course students will gain the following learning outcomes: 

  • A knowledge of the safeguarding of the environment and the promotion of resource conservation through reuse, recycling and recovery of secondary resources from waste.
  • An understanding of the different secondary resources and economic value of waste streams generated in urban spaces.
  • A basic understanding of the planning and designing of sustainable urban spaces, making the process consistent with the sustainable development goals.
  • A basic understanding of the concept of extracting valuable materials from existing infrastructure, landfills and the dissipation of them into the environment.

Syllabus:

  • Introduction to Urban Mining
  • E-Waste
  • Development of Urban Mining
  • Urban Mining and energy
  • Spatial data analysis 
  • Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment and Case studies
Construction & Demolition Waste Quantification, Minimisation and Recycling. Building with Recycled Materials

On this part of the course students will gain the following learning outcomes: 

  • Knowledge on current EU legal measures for construction and demolition waste.
  • An understanding of the different waste quantification tools, software and databases used for construction and demolition waste.
  • An understanding of the current best practices on waste minimisation and the correct management of whole construction projects, from design to execution phase.
  • Sufficient knowledge for drafting Waste Management Plans.
  • An opportunity to design sustainable materials and products manufactured with construction and demolition waste.

Syllabus:

  • Legal framework for the construction and demolition of waste in the EU – focused on Spain
  • Construction and demolition waste quantification tools
  • Best practices for waste minimisation and management
  • Construction and demolition waste management (with case study)
  • Recycled materials for building construction
  • Characterisation of new building materials with construction and demolition waste​
  • Design of new construction products manufactured with recycled materials​
Characterisation and Management of Construction Products

On this part of the course students will gain the following learning outcomes:

  • Knowledge of the current picture of construction and demolition waste (CDW) in the EU: end-of-life products generated, different sources, type of fractions, etc.
  • How to plan a design for deconstruction measures (design stage); hazardous waste decontamination, concrete sawing and drilling, dismantling, decommissioning, demolition, preparation for recycling and recycling (end-of-life stage).
  • Identify relevant scientific sources as the basis for deepening an understanding of particularities of waste fractions.
  • Analyse patented technology: use, potential, etc.
  • Analyse the existing business models for the end-of-life of construction products.
  • Contribute to the design and analysis of innovative pilot value chains for a circular economy.
  • Analyse chemical and physical properties of CDW and secondary raw materials.
Resource Efficiency in Mineral Processes

On this part of the course students will gain the following learning outcomes:

  • Knowledge on current efficient and sustainable mineral (raw or wastes) forming processes and the relationship with previous material processing.
  • How to use software and databases on processing selection.
  • An understanding of how to analyse the results of forming processes, in addition to a cost analysis and end user requirement analysis of final products.
  • An understanding of the standardisation of the materials field to fulfill product specification.
  • A basic understanding of the value chain of efficient forming of raw or waste minerals.
  • How to discuss case studies and laboratory results on sustainable mineral forming process.

Syllabus:

  • Introduction to efficient forming processes. Standardisation 
  • Processing techniques. Raw mineral and wastes conditioning
  • Processing selection. Quality and product’s final characteristics
Technological Innovation and Entrepreneurship

On this part of the course students will gain the following learning outcomes:

  • An awareness in how to develop an entrepreneurial attitude
  • The ability to generate and develop business ideas within a given entity (intrapreneurship).
  • How to develop a (successful) business model.
  • An understanding of the financial needs for creation and growth of a business.
  • Knowledge on the steps to create a sustainable technology-based company.

Syllabus:

  • Introduction to entrepreneurship fundamentals 
  • Eleven steps to analyse a business model proposal
  • Fast analysis methodology
  • Marketing and operations
  • Financial fundamentals
  • Writing a business plan
  • Demo Day
Training for Professional Digital Competence

On this part of the course students will gain the following learning outcomes:

  • How to analyse existing massive open online courses (MOOCs) worldwide and be able to assess their progress.
  • Improvement of their personal learning environment (PLE).
  • Assess new ICTs and sources to incorporate to their PLE.
  • Use MOOCs as a way to enhance formal and informal learning outcomes.
  • Improvement of their online digital presence.
  • Improvement of presentation skills under real conditions.

Syllabus:

  • MOOCs in the field of transversal competencies. Training and assessment through MOOCs
  • Introduction to PLE
  • Guidelines to create a PLE
  • MOOCs and PLE
  • Management of the digital identity. Self-assessment and peer review
  • Presentation skills
4th semester – Spring Semester
Internship in industry or RTO (Research and Technology Organisation)

Students will undertake a 6-month internship, typically in one of the Research and Technology Organisations laboratories or industries, as well as any industrial partner or start-up with the desire to join the consortium that are able to bring added-value to the programme. Students will be able to choose the best internship for their future career or even create their own start up during this period!

Masters Thesis

During their thesis period students will first become familiarised with their subject of choice and set-up a work schedule. Students will also undertake experimental and/or theoretical work on a scientific subject, documentation of the results by authoring the Master Thesis, presentation of the results in a talk with subsequent scientific discussion, public presentation of the results of the Master Thesis with subsequent scientific discussion.

Expected Learning: Students will know the foundational discussions around a current topic, usually a research related question in materials science. They will know the structure and composition of scientific publications and will be able to apply acquired knowledge and qualifications to specific scientific topics with newly acquired methods and means, in order to independently work on scientific problems in sufficient depth and breadth. They will also be able to autonomously create documentation and presentations about their research work and results. Finally, students will be able to adequately present their results and discuss and defend them in a public scientific environment.

3rd semester – Autumn Semester
Mechanical Activation and Particulate Composites

The aim of this part of the course is to learn about the methods, devices and technologies of mechanical activation and manufacture of particulate composites. The main disciplinary competencies are:

  • History of mechanical activation
  • Fundamental process engineering, physico-chemical and chemical properties of raw materials and their modifications by mechanical processes
  • Methods and devices of mechanical activation with special regards to high energy density mills (vibrating mill, planetary ball mill, stirred media mill)
  • Methods and devices of manufacture of particulate composites. Conscious control of the product properties by means of the optimisation of process variables
  • Mechanical and thermal processes
  • Granulation methods and monitoring of the process and the resulting products
  • Quality control methods
  • Process engineering technologies
  • Application of advanced technologies in the industrial production
  • Students will gain knowledge on the main methods and devices of mechanical activation. Furthermore, they will be able to select and apply the various types of mills and allied devices for related technologies.
Introduction to Polymers

The goal of the course is to introduce the basic properties of polymers to the students. The course starts with the basic definitions and basic chemical and physical descriptions of polymers. Students will gather the skills to easily differentiate between common polymers and will use datasheets to allocate polymers for different processing methods and/or applications. They will gain an understanding of the thermomechanical behaviour of polymers in general and the specific properties of semicrystalline and crosslinked polymers. An overview of the most common processing techniques is given in order to form perspective on the product specialties resulting from the different processes. The main disciplinary competencies are:

  • Knowledge of the definition of polymers and plastics
  • Introduction to the technology for the preparation of polymer molecules
  • Description of polymers; average molecular weight, polydispersity
  • Stereoisomers tacticity
  • Chain flexibility of polymers and related properties
  • Overview of the processing technologies as a function of state and temperature
  • Additives and fillers and their purpose and application
  • Structure of polymeric bulks, behaviour of polymeric chains and molecules, behaviour of polymer segments in different force fields

Practical techniques that students will learn:

  • Measuring methodology for qualifying polymers for processing
  • Familiarisation of general polymer testing methods
  • Determination of average molecular weight and statistical evaluation of polymer molecular weight distribution
  • Identification of common polymers using simple and instrumental analytical methods
Interfacial Phenomena

The objective of the course is to teach students the science of interfacial phenomena, applied to nanosciences and nanotechnologies, mostly using the extended equilibrium approach of Gibbs. In addition to the basic definitions – molar surface area, surface tension, contact angle, segregation, the course describes equilibrium of nano-materials – vapour pressure, solubility, melting point, phase equilibria, including super-hydrophobicity, nucleation and interfacial forces in details. The main disciplinary competencies are:

  • Knowledge of the study of the science of interfacial phenomena applied to nanosciences and nanotechnologies

Practical techniques that students will learn:

  • This is a theoretical course, that includes calculating examples using scientific calculators
Sampling and Advanced Analytical Methods of Material Characterisation

The main goal of the course is to develop a profound understanding of attendants in material characterisation for raw materials and experimental procedures of material development. The main disciplinary competencies are:

  • Students will develop the ability to give complete (chemical, physical and structural) characterisation of amorphous, nanocrystalline and crystalline solids from nanometer to millimeter scale.
  • Students will develop first-hand experience of sampling methods required for different material analysis techniques. The first part of the course will focus on the importance and theory of sampling in the fields of experiment design and lab-scale industrial experiments. Sampling theory for coarse to very fine grained powders, slurries, block materials and composites are presented, with emphasis on bulk vs. fraction wise sample preparation. An outline of physical testing methods will be provided: hardness, deformation, stress and strain evolution and their role in the development of structural defects.
  • For the second part of the course, students will be guided through the combined application of already known analytical methods for material composition and fabric characterisation. Separate and combined applications of X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscopy with electron beam microanalysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and optical microscopy techniques will be demonstrated.
  • Students will have an introduction to wet chemical analysis methods, and vibrational spectroscopy techniques as well as practical demonstrations.

Practical techniques that students will learn:

  • Practical exercises with hands-on sampling and testing methods in the laboratory, as well as sample preparation, measurements and evaluation with various analytical techniques, data interpretation and comprehensive reporting of results.
Treatment and Processing of Glass, Paper, Rubber and Polymer Wastes

The aim of the course is for students to learn a deep knowledge about paper and plastics, glass and rubber as material, their properties and their production methods and technologies and their utilisation as secondary raw material. Furthermore, students will learn the appearance of these materials in different waste streams and their recycling technologies and unit operation level in regards to their utilisation as an application in commodity production and energetic utilisation application. The main disciplinary competencies are:

  • Glass, rubber, paper and plastic production
  • Properties of waste materials in comparison with original commodities in respect of their production and utilisation
  • Waste streams and major appearance of paper, rubber, glass and plastic in these waste streams, quality and quantity
  • Properties of rubber, glass, paper and plastics focusing the properties relevant to their recycling and separation
  • Technical solutions of paper, glass, rubber and plastic recycling, equipment and unit operation in paper and plastic recycling, energetic applications and as a secondary raw material utilisation of plastics and paper
Production and Innovation Management

The aim of the course is to provide students with the ability to recognise new ideas in connection to their work and personal lives. Students will learn how to manage the realisation process and evaluate the results. Case studies and other practices will be used to highlight successful and unsuccessful innovations from the past and present. The main disciplinary competencies are:

  • Terminology of Innovation Management: Understanding and realising the elements of innovation, distinction of micro- and macro aspects
  • Invention and innovation
  • R&D
  • Typology and business explanation: Models of Schumpeter, Valenta and Bucsy, accordance to the business strategy and basic marketing behaviour
  • Diffusion: Recognising and managing the popular products, services and processes, handling typical success- and defect-factors
  • Thinking as an innovator: Practice for 1-3 lessons. Students will have the opportunity to choose a topic branch and develop a product-idea for it, including the strategy of diffusion
  • Process of innovation: Various models and the approaches of the realisation process
    Business solutions: network-building
  • Business possibilities among many partners
  • Knowledge and technology transfer: Information and knowledge management in the background of innovations. Models, processes and local/international strategies
  • Low tech innovation: Strategic behaviour of non innovation-driven branches
  • Organisational innovation: (Re)building the organisational structure for aiding action in connection with research and development
  • Measuring the innovation: Ways and methods for calculating levels of success
  • Evaluating methods for new ideas: Practice of managerial (light) tools for evaluating the non-calculable factors and effects of innovation
  • Financing the innovation: Financial possibilities and methods
  • Managing innovation in practice: Connecting with CEO’s, project management, QA/QC
  • Strategic issues: International case studies to demonstrate success factors and barriers
4th semester – Spring Semester
Internship in industry or RTO (Research and Technology Organisation)

Students will undertake a 6-month internship, typically in one of the Research and Technology Organisations laboratories or industries, as well as any industrial partner or start-up with the desire to join the consortium that are able to bring added-value to the programme. Students will be able to choose the best internship for their future career or even create their own start up during this period!

Masters Thesis

During their thesis period students will first become familiarised with their subject of choice and set-up a work schedule. Students will also undertake experimental and/or theoretical work on a scientific subject, documentation of the results by authoring the Master Thesis, presentation of the results in a talk with subsequent scientific discussion, public presentation of the results of the Master Thesis with subsequent scientific discussion.

Expected Learning: Students will know the foundational discussions around a current topic, usually a research related question in materials science. They will know the structure and composition of scientific publications and will be able to apply acquired knowledge and qualifications to specific scientific topics with newly acquired methods and means, in order to independently work on scientific problems in sufficient depth and breadth. They will also be able to autonomously create documentation and presentations about their research work and results. Finally, students will be able to adequately present their results and discuss and defend them in a public scientific environment.